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How safe is your bank?

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How safe is your bank?

How safe is your bank | Even though banks are generally thought to be safe, many have frozen their customers’ money because of bad finances. People think that private sector banks and cooperative banks are more likely to fail. But IDBI was also in trouble before LIC bought it out. Investing involves more than just your bank’s fixed deposit interest rate.

Every once in a while, Sometimes something goes wrong and puts bank deposits at risk. The accusing finger is always pointed at the regulator and the government.

Sure, the “system” has a role to play, but so does every stakeholder, and that includes the person who makes a deposit.

In this case, it is the depositor’s responsibility to know what he or she is getting into, what the risks are, and who is responsible for the loss if something goes wrong.

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This is important because we tend to be swayed when we see a big sign outside a branch office that says “Bank” in big letters.

As an example, the scam at Punjab and Maharashtra Cooperative Bank (PMC) is said to have affected even people at the Reserve Bank of India.

The Reserve Bank Officers’ Cooperative Credit Society Ltd, which has about 3,500 members, was said to have a fixed deposit with PMC worth 105 crore. Also, the Reserve Bank Staff and Officers Cooperative Credit Society Ltd, which had about 8,300 members, had fixed deposits worth 86.50 crores.

Also Read: Review of Mutual Funds Investment in India

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It’s safer now, but is that enough?

The “system” is safer for depositors now than it was before.

The Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Act increased insurance coverage from 1 lakh to 5 lahks. Before, depositors had to wait until the bank was closed down. Which can take years in a court of law before they could get their money back.

Now it’s time for the default to happen.

The Reserve Bank of India released its Financial Stability Report on December 29, 2022. It said, “As of September 30, 2022, there were 2,034 registered insured banks. Including 141 commercial banks and 1,893 cooperative banks. With the current limit of deposit insurance at 5 lahks, as of the end of September 2022, there were 267.1 crore fully protected deposit accounts, which is 98% of the total. The insured deposits, which were worth 80.95 lakh crore, made up 46.2% of all assessable deposits.

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From a simple point of view, This covers 98% of bank depositors by account number. But in terms of money, this only covers a little less than half of the deposits (46.2%). More than half of the deposits aren’t insured because they are more than 5 lakh, which is the minimum amount.

Trying to find out How safe your bank is?

Your bank deposits are safe in more ways than just insurance coverage. When you choose one of the simplest and most basic ways to invest, you should feel at ease. Banks owned by the government are safe.

Even though it’s not a written guarantee, the Government is expected to do this. If something goes wrong, the government steps in and figures out a way to fix it. When IDBI Bank went out of business because of a lot of bad loans, LIC had to take the hit. People argued about the move because some people think that LIC’s money belongs to policyholders. But the money that people had on deposit was safe.

The next type of bank is the leading private sector banks. Our top banks were asked to invest in Yes Bank to help it through its NPA crisis.

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Also Read: WHAT IS ESG (ENVIRONMENTAL | SOCIAL | GOVERNANCEWHAT)?

Too Big to Fail 

The idea of “Too Big to Fail” (TBTF) says that when a big bank is in trouble and could put the whole financial system at risk, the whole system steps in to help. Many cooperative banks fail because their founders “used” them to make huge non-performing loans, but these are not TBTFs.

According to the Financial Stability Report, which the RBI released on December 29, 2022, the gross NPAs of scheduled commercial banks (the leading banks) is 5% and the net NPAs (after accounting for provisions) are only 1.3%. Urban Cooperative Banks (UCBs) have 12.7% GNPAs, and non-scheduled UCBs have 15.8%. Even worse would be NPAs of rural UCBs that are not on a schedule.

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Personal Finance

What exactly is Yield to Maturity?

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Yield to Maturity (YTM)

What exactly is Yield to Maturity? Define, Formula, and Calculate

Investors in debt securities need to know about terms like yield, maturity, coupon, and yield to maturity. These values can help an investor decide whether to buy a bond and keep it for better long-term returns.

The yield to maturity tells bond investors how much money they can expect to get back from their investments over time.

What is a bond’s yield-to-maturity (YTM)?

Yield to maturity is the total amount of money you can expect to get back from a bond when it comes due. Yield to maturity is made up of two keywords: “Yield” and “Maturity.” Yield is the return on investment over a year.

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It includes both the dividends and interest you can get from an investment during its term. Analysts and investors talk about yield in terms of percentages.

Maturity is the date that debt securities reach the end of their investment period. When the time is up, investors get the payments they were promised. When we put these two words together, we can get a better idea of what yield to maturity is.

The term “yield-to-maturity” is important for anyone who wants to invest in debt mutual funds. As the name suggests, YTM tells investors how much they will make if they keep their bonds until they “mature.”

Also Read: How to Reduce India’s Income Tax

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YTM is the total return that investors can expect if they keep their money until maturity. It is given as a rate per year.

Here’s something exciting for investors like you who are smart. Navi Mutual Fund has a wide range of low-cost index funds that might fit your investment goals. Not sure if you want to make a one-time investment?

Don’t worry, you can start with just Rs.10! Yes, you did hear correctly. Get the Navi app, choose the funds you want, and start investing!

Disclaimer: Mutual fund investments are subject to market risks, read all scheme-related documents carefully.

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Now, let’s look at the yield to maturity in more detail.

How does the value of the yield to maturity work?

Yield-to-maturity is the internal rate of return that a bond can make by the time it matures. The price you paid for a bond right now can help you figure out how much money it will bring in the future.

Even though the yield to maturity is a bond’s annual return, it is calculated based on the last six months.

But a volatile market has an effect on the prices of bonds, which change along with interest rates. The coupon rate comes into play at this point. The coupon rate on a bond stays the same until it matures.

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The market will affect the price and yield of that bond, but not the coupon rates.

As the market interest rate falls below the coupon rate, the price of bonds tends to go up. This makes investors want to buy a bond. But bond prices go down when the interest rate goes up more than the coupon rate.

When the bond’s coupon rate and the market interest rate are the same, you may see an average bond price. So, when figuring out YTM, investors have to assume that a bond’s current yield and coupon payment will be the same when they are re-invested.

What’s the point of Yield to Maturity?

Here’s why it’s important to figure out the yield to maturity:

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  • First, it helps investors understand how yield and price changes in the market can affect their debt portfolios.
  • Investors can use YTM to figure out what securities they can add to their portfolios to make them more diverse.
  • Investors can use YTM to compare different bonds and make an informed choice before buying one.
  • Investors can figure out if a bond will give them a good return based on how it is doing right now.
  • Using the time value of money helps you figure out how much a bond will earn in the future.

How to Calculate Yield to Maturity?

Yield to Maturity Formula:

The YTM formula can be used to figure out the yield to maturity of a bond.

The formula for Yield to Maturity

= [C+ {(F-P)/N}] / [{(F+P)/2}]

Here, C is the coupon rate, F is the face value of the bond, N is the number of years until it matures, and P is the current market value of the bond.

Yield to Maturity Calculation:

To figure out the yield-to-maturity ratio, investors need to know how much the bond is worth right now. Analysts use different trial-and-error methods to figure out the price of a bond by assuming different interest rates.

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This process keeps going until the current value of the bond matches its market price.

Here is the formula for figuring out how much a bond is worth right now.

Bond’s present value (P) = [C/(1+R)] + [C/ (1+R) ^2] +…..+ [C/1+R] + [F/1+r]

Example of How to Figure Yield to Maturity

Let’s use the following example to understand how to figure out YTM.

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The face value of a corporate bond that is trading at Rs.95.92 right now is Rs.100. The coupon rate on the bond is 5%, and it will be paid off in 3 years.

Let’s use the formula [C+(F-P)/N] to figure out how much the bond will be worth when it comes due. / [{(F+P)/2}]

YTM= [5+ {(100-95.92)/3}] / [{(100+95.92)/2}]

YTM= 6.542%

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So, we can see that this corporate bond has a yield-to-maturity of 6.54%

By now, it should be clear that figuring out YTM by hand is hard and takes a lot of time. You can avoid the trouble by using yield-to-maturity calculators that you can find online.

What are the different ways that Yield to Maturity (YTM) can change?

Yield-to-maturity can be done in three different ways.

  1. Answer the Call

In this version, bond issuers have to buy back their bonds before they mature. Since the bond is redeemed before it matures, the cash flow period for a YTC bond is shorter.

An issuer “calls” a bond to get rid of it or refinance it when interest rates are low.

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Formula for yield to call = (C/2)* {(1-(1+ YTC/2)^ -2t) / (YTC/2)}+ (CP/(1+ YTC/2)^2t)

Here, C is the annual coupon rate, YTC is the yield to call, t is the amount of time left until the call date, and CP is the call price.

  1. Let It Go
    A bondholder can sell the bond back to the issuer at a special rate on a set date, just like with yield to call.
  2. Plan for the worst.
    If there is no defaulting, this variation of YTM usually has the lowest yield compared to the others. Before a bond matures, its issuer can put, call, or exchange it

How can an investor use YTM?

Investors can use yield to maturity in the following ways:

  • One can figure out if a bond is a good investment or not.
  • It lets an investor compare one bond to another and decide which one will give them the most money when it matures.
  • Investors can also use YTM to compare the terms of different bonds and figure out how much each one will pay back.
  • With YTM computation, they can guess how changes in the market will affect their portfolio.
  • Investors can figure out market risks and how volatile a bond’s price is by using the yield to maturity value.

What is Yield to Maturity’s limitations?

Here are some of the things that don’t work with the yield-to-maturity metric:

  • Yield to maturity gives you a result that is based on estimates or close guesses. This makes it less likely that YTM is a good source.
  • Taxes on bonds are not taken into account when YTM is calculated.
  • It tries to guess what will happen in the future, which may or may not be true.
  • The risk of investing in bonds is not taken into account by the YTM formula.
  • The formula also doesn’t take into account transaction costs, brokerage fees, and the expense ratio.

Last Word

In conclusion, YTM, or yield to maturity, is an important metric that lets an investor predict how much money a bond will bring in if it is held until maturity.

It also helps them decide which bond will give them the best long-term return. All of this has been about yield to maturity and why investors should care about it.

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How to Reduce India’s Income Tax

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India's Income Tax

How to Reduce India’s Income Tax Because of their tax burden, every salaried individual asks this question. We are aware that income tax is assessed at various rates. Consequently, many are concerned about paying a substantial proportion of their income in taxes.

There are numerous legal techniques to avoid paying income tax. Some individuals pay their income tax without complaint. Others, though, execute their tax planning flawlessly. This article discusses strategies to reduce income tax in India.

Revenue Tax Slab in India

According to the recent revision of the finance ministry, there are currently two income tax brackets in effect. The former tax bracket will enable people to save tax dollars by investing in tax-saving investment vehicles.

The new tax bracket is straightforward. There is no investment need for taxpayers to receive a reduced tax bracket rate. The new tax bracket will be better suitable for those in the upper middle class who do not make tax-saving investments.

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The tax bracket for the fiscal year 2021-22 is listed below.

Also Read: Personal Finance Rules: What Each Person Needs to Know

How to Reduce Indian Income Tax

There are numerous legal ways to lower one’s tax burden. The following are the most common tax reduction strategies. This consists of investments, insurance, loans, etc.

Section 80C – Up to 1.5 Lakh may be saved under section 80C

if the section 80 C maximum is utilized. Section 80C allows you to save up to 1.5 lacks in tax by investing in various tax-saving devices. Below are the specifics of tax-saving plans with tax-saving benefits.

  • ELSS – ELSS (Equity Linked Savings Scheme) is a popular type of equity-linked savings scheme mutual fund. You can invest in ELSS using either the lump sum or SIP approach. ELSS funds are funds with a three-year lockup period. 10% is the long-term capital gain applicable to the ELSS.
  • This is one of the top tax-saving instruments. Tax-advantaged FDs are for investors who are risk-averse. In addition, this instrument will have a 5-year lock-in duration.
  • Public Provident Fund (PPF) – The PPF is regarded as one of the safest investing options. PPF is a choice for long-term investments. The primary advantage of the PPF is that it comes within the EEE category. Investing in PPF might yield annual savings of up to 1,500,000.
  • Life Insurance Premium – Section 80C permits a deduction for life insurance premiums paid for oneself and family members. This applies to all insurance policies, including term plans, ULIPs, endowment policies, etc.
  • Section 80C of the Internal Revenue Code allows you to deduct the principal paid on a home loan. The annual limit authorized for capital is 1,500,000.
  • Tuition Costs – Section 80C allows parents to deduct tuition fees paid to schools for their children’s education.
  • Sukanya Samriddhi Program – You may invest in the Sukanya Samriddhi scheme and receive a tax deduction for the amount paid to SSY.
  • The Senior Citizen Savings Scheme – Senior Citizen Savings Scheme Fixed Deposit is a specific savings program for senior citizens. The SCSC offers a higher interest rate to senior citizens. Investing in SCSS is eligible for a tax deduction.
  • EPF – Employees Provident Fund (EPF ) Any contributions made to the employee provident fund qualify for the section 80C tax exemption.

National Pension System Article 80CCD

By investing in the NPS, you are eligible for an extra 500,000 tax deductions under section 80CCD. You must open an NPS account and make an investment. The contribution must be maintained in the NPS account until the age of 60.

Also read: How to pick the best Exchange-traded funds

The premium for Health Insurance Section 80D

Up to 25,000 of self- and family-paid health insurance premiums are free from taxes. The maximum limit for a senior citizen is 500,000. The maximum limit for self and senior citizen parents combined is 75,000.

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Repayment of Mortgage Loan Interest

The interest repaid on a house loan is eligible for a tax deduction. Two million rupees is the maximum amount eligible for a tax deduction for home loan repayment. This sum is in addition to the maximum section 80C deduction of 1.5 million.

Earnings on a savings account

The savings account interest income up to 10,000 per fiscal year is exempt from taxation. This is according to section 80TTA. Under section 80TTB, the exemption ceiling for older citizens is increased to 50000.

Donation pursuant to Section 80G

Section 80G allows you to claim tax benefits for charitable contributions. We can make the contribution through any group that provides a receipt under section 80G, including political, religious, and philanthropic organizations.

Section 80E Repayment of Education Loan

The interest portion of student loan payments is eligible for tax exemption. There will be no cap on the amount of interest repaid on student loans.

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Final Reflections| Income Tax

How to Minimize Income Tax is usually the most googled topic by Indians People desire to lower their tax burden and reduce their tax liability through legal and government-approved means. Some individuals employ these tactics, while others do not. Nowadays, many individuals effectively prepare their taxes to lower their tax burden. In this article, we explored legitimate and lawful ways to save income tax in India. These procedures are authorized by the Indian government and are legal.

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Personal Finance Rules: What Each Person Needs to Know

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Personal Finance Rules

Personal Finance Rules| What Each Person Needs to know every corporation has regulations, and the government has rules for residents and employees (generally known as guidelines). These rules promote economic progress. The company’s regulations boost sales and revenue and make the process easier.

You should have lifestyle norms and ideals to safeguard yourself. Why not financial rules? How about spending rules? Why not set investing rules?

Emotional financial decisions often lead to overspending and debt. If you save most of your salary, sacrificing your necessities, desires, and health, you lament not saving money but not knowing how much to save while enjoying the life you deserve.

These rules will greatly improve your financial decision-making.

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Personal Finance Rules 1 : 50 – 30 – 20 Rule

This rule tells you how your money should be split. This rule says that you should spend 50 percent on your NEEDS, 30 percent on your WANTS, and 20 percent on your SAVINGS.

This rule should tell you that when you get your paycheck,

  • You should spend 50% of your income on your Needs.
  • You should spend 30% of your income on your Wants.
  • You should put 20% of your income into savings.

You have to spend your money on things you need, you can’t avoid it. Like your rent, mobile bills, internet bills, insurance premium, fuel expenses, etc.

Wants are pretty much what you want. You might want to go on vacation or upgrade your phone, laptop, etc.

Do you know what you need and what you want?

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Needs and wants are more about the person than about the group. For example, if I just want to buy an iPhone, that’s what I want. If you’re happy with the phone you already have, you might want a new bike instead.

Also Read: Personal Finance Tips: 100 Tips to help you build wealth

Personal Finance Rules 2: 3X Rule for Emergencies: Emergency Fund and Continuation Fund

This rule says that you should always have enough money to cover at least three months of your needs. This could be in the form of cash in the bank, liquid mutual funds, or fixed deposits.

Please keep in mind that this rule says you should always have enough money for your NEEDS, not for other things like buying a phone, gadgets, or furniture. For more information, see rule number one.

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I get paid a salary, and I don’t know when I’ll lose my job, and I can’t do anything about it. I could be out of work if the economy slows down like it did during COVID. But I could get better at what I do so I can stay in the race until the end.

If you were fired, what would you do? Can you say that you won’t have to pay bills until you get a job?

So, this rule says that you should always have enough money to cover at least three months of your needs. This could be in the form of cash in the bank, liquid mutual funds, or fixed deposits.

Please keep in mind that this rule says you should always have enough money for your NEEDS, not for other things like buying a phone, gadgets, or furniture. For more information, see rule number one.

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There are also different ways to follow this rule. Some people say you should set aside enough money to cover your costs for at least six months to a year.

I think Higher the Better is good. For example, if you can save enough money to cover your costs for 50 years, you don’t have to work again in your life. People usually save enough money to cover their expenses for a year or two and invest the rest in stocks, mutual funds, and real estate.

Personal Finance Rules 3: Life Insurance Rule(20x to 25x)

If you’re looking for a life insurance policy, you’ve probably thought at least once about what kind of coverage you should get. Most people don’t know how much insurance coverage they should get, so they may either get too little or too much.

This rule says that if you want to buy life insurance, you should buy 20 times your annual salary. So, if something bad happened to you and you died, your loved ones would at least be able to pay their bills with your 20 years of annual salary.

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For example, if you make 5Lakhs INR per year, you should have a life cover of at least 1Cr and no more than 1.25Cr.

You can’t get such a high Cover for Life with fancy policies like Money Back schemes or others. These are regular savings plans, not insurance plans.

Pure Life Cover is the Pure Term Plan. I also suggest a term plan for life insurance. In the Insurance Planning series, you will learn more.

Note: There is something important you need to know. Most people think that an insurance policy is a great way to invest their money because they think they can get their money back when the policy term is over. Please keep in mind that insurance and investments are not the same. Don’t buy insurance and investments at the same time.

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Personal Finance Rules 4 is about health insurance

As medical technology gets better and treatment costs go up, the costs of any kind of treatment are going up. Also, there is about 15% inflation in the medical field. So, to pay for these costs, you should have at least Cover 5 Lakhs of medical insurance, which can go up to 50% of your annual salary.

Don’t forget that getting health insurance is like protecting your money from an unplanned and unexpected health emergency.

Personal Finance Rules 5: 40% EMI RULE

You may have to pay EMI for a home loan, a car loan, or an online purchase at some point or another.

The 40% EMI rule says that your total EMI bill (all EMIs) should not be more than 40% of your monthly take-home pay.

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For instance, if you get 40,000 rupees every month, you shouldn’t have to pay more than 16,000 rupees in EMIs (40% of 40,000 rupees).

Bonus Tip: Escape Impulse Buying

Advertising firms and beautiful product reviews may encourage you to buy a product or service. That product may not be necessary. Impulse buying happens when you fall for imaginative commercials and buy.

Stop spending on such expenses and restrain your impulses to save money. How to stop impulse buying? Try delaying the purchase for a week. If you still want to buy after a week, go ahead.

If a product doesn’t bring value, you’ll probably stop buying it.

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Personal Finance Tips : 100 Tips to help you build wealth

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personal finances

Personal Finance Tips | Personal Finance takes time and is Lifelong. Planning involves more than being aware of every financial action and knowing the basics. Budgeting and investing are popular and essential financial planning components.

Financial motivation, increasing income and controlling debts, planning for retirement and implementing it, knowing the credit history or score, and making use of it are all equally significant. 100 money-building tips are here.

The basics of financial planning

  • A financial calendar is an absolute must. This calendar must have a place for all the important financial commitments, such as dates or deadlines. You could do this with an app.
  • A budget is the first step in planning your money. It should take into account everything that can change and everything that stays the same, including your short-term and long-term Personal Finance goals.
  • If there is no accountability for money, budgets don’t mean anything. Financial prudence should be used all year long. If it isn’t, it’s hard to be fiscally accountable.
  • Know the rates of interest on your loans, credit cards, and any other interest you may be charged, if any.
  • Know how much you have and keep track of it. The key to getting rich is to keep adding to your net worth. This includes the cash you have on hand, as well as all of your valuable assets, whether they are fixed or mobile.
  • Review your financial plan every three months, including your budget, fiscal accountability, and net worth.

Also Read: Why you shouldn’t invest in ELSS at year’s end.

Personal Finance Tips 1: Budgeting

  • Make a budget for each month. This should include all required costs as well as some routinely chosen costs.
  • Set aside some money every month that you might or might not use. Your monthly budget must include this fund.
  • A budget shouldn’t be about how much you spend and then how much you save. You can decide how much you want to save or invest first, and then plan how much you will spend.
  • For a budget to work, you have to save money. Find ways to save money on things you have to buy by using coupons and apps.
  • You should never try to pay the full price or the retail price listed. If you want to save money, look into everything from discount codes to buying in bulk.
  • Cancel any subscriptions that you don’t need or that you’re not likely to use. Among these things is the gym membership you don’t use.
  • Getting rid of overdraft protection will get rid of the fee. At first, these fees might not seem like much, but when you add up all of these small, recurring costs, they add up to a big amount after a few years.
  • Automate all of your scheduled payments and transfers of money, but most importantly, your savings contributions. This will stop people from being secretive and putting things off.
  • Use your credit cards and lines of credit less often. Start paying for things with cash or a debit card to keep track of how much you spend. When you use credit all the time, it’s easy to spend more than you have.
Also Read: Edelweiss Financial Services NCD rates are competitive.
  • In just one minute a day, you can see what you’ve spent and saved in the last 24 hours. This ritual can help you stick to your budget and be more proactive about making money.
  • Try to live by the 50/30/20 financial mantra or find one that is even better. This rule is easy to understand. You should spend half of your income on needs, like utilities and food. You should spend 30% on what you want. One-fifth of the money should be put away in a retirement account and an emergency fund. If you don’t have any debt, you must be putting all of this money into savings.
  • Before you decide to buy something, give it ten seconds of thought. Ask yourself if you really need it, and if you do, take the next step.
  • Make a savings account for a rainy day or a surprise. This is not the fund for emergencies. It should have a few hundred or a few thousand dollars in it to pay for things you need now and then.
  • Put money aside for expensive things and wait until you have the full amount. You might not even want to buy the thing by then, so you can save the money.
  • Save more money by making more friends, but not at a fancy place. Parties at home are much more fun and cost less money.
  • If you have more than one account, give each one a name so you can stay on track with your budget and stay motivated.

Personal Finance Tips 2: Financial Motivation

  • Motivation is the key to both making good financial plans and sticking with them. Make vision boards that show how your money plan will work.
  • Make reminders that you can see to keep yourself going. Put your money apps where you can see them every time you turn on a device.
  • Goals for money shouldn’t be vague. Specify as much as you can, or you won’t be inspired.
  • Even when you are just thinking, use positive words when you talk about money.
  • Stay busy to avoid temptation or keep them in check.
  • Short-term goals give you motivation right away.
  • The short-term goals make sense in the context of the long-term goals.
  • Use goals that you can see to avoid making rash financial decisions.
  • Don’t think negatively about your money. Criticize the plan, look it over, and make changes to it, but don’t think it’s too hard or impossible to follow.
  • Work out to stay healthy and make money. A healthy body and a calm mind are great for understanding financial law.
  • If you are grateful for what you already have, you will find the money to keep going.
  • Accountability is a motivator in and of itself. Use it to your advantage instead of letting it hold you back.
  • Think about your future avatar, talk to yourself at different times in the future, and keep yourself motivated.

Personal Finance Tips 3: Earn more money

  • Explore all your skills. Grab any chance you can to make some extra money.
  • If you have to, work hard and make use of the time and tools you have.
  • Learn something new or work on a skill you used to have but have lost its edge. Use it to make money on the side.
  • If you improve your skills, you can make more money in the job you already have. Try to grow.
  • If you can’t figure out how to make more money, you should find a good mentor.
  • Try to get the most out of everything, especially interviews and negotiations. Do not settle for a low wage if you can get more.
  • Use unemployment benefits. There’s no shame in asking for help when you can’t fix something. You shouldn’t feel embarrassed either. The people who pay taxes pay for the benefits. You have already paid taxes and will do so again when you get a job.
  • During reviews, try to get better raises. Don’t start with your personal goals or your financial goals. Use what the company needs and how you can help to make your case for a bigger raise.

Personal Finance Tips 4: Debt Management

  • No matter what, you should always keep your debt in check.
  • Start out with small loans. They are not too hard to pay back.
  • Don’t take out a big loan if you haven’t dealt with debt much or at all in the past.
  • Don’t borrow money or get into debt if you don’t have to.
  • Wait and see if you really need something before you use credit to buy it.
  • Stay within your means, and you won’t have to worry about debt.
  • Spend what you have, not what you might have. If you spend what you might have, you’ll end up in debt.
  • Don’t fall for click-bait offers, sales that only last for a short time, or deals in newsletters. If you can’t help yourself, unsubscribe.
  • When you need to buy things you need, sales can help. When you buy things that aren’t necessary, they can get you into a lot of debt.
  • Don’t always use credit cards.
  • Stop carrying credit cards around unless you have a good reason to.
  • Carefully handle every loan. The monthly payment is not the only thing you have to do.
  • Any debt that costs you money in ways other than paying it back is not worth it.
  • Don’t try to live up to what other people want and put yourself in debt.
  • Don’t pay your credit card bills in installments if you can’t see how you’ll lose in the long run.
  • Avoid high-interest short-term loans that don’t have to be paid back right away. They are clear ways to get into debt.
  • When you go shopping, cut back on one or two things you were going to buy. Try doing that or getting rid of something else you thought you needed.
  • Try not to cosign a loan. Do not use yourself as collateral or as a guarantor.
  • Try to get the most out of the student aid you can get. Learn about the Federal Student Aid Free Application.
  • Avoid private loans. Prefer federal loans.
  • Student loans have different kinds of terms. Compare them and choose the one that suits you best. Consider different repayment options.
  • Buy a car when you can pay for it, not just the monthly payment but also the other costs.
  • When you are ready, buy a house. The mortgage is a big commitment, but so are the many other new costs that come up during the year.
  • Cost should not always come before quality. If you pay less, you may end up spending more in the short or long term. If you spend too much, you could end up in debt because you spent too much.
  • Always weigh the cost against the work. If something is worth it, it should quickly pay for itself. If you don’t, it will be like a debt that you will have to keep paying for a long time.
  • Don’t spend money on things. Spend your money on experience instead. You’ll have more fun and save money at the same time.
  • Shopping by yourself is the best way to stick to a budget. It also keeps people from buying things they don’t need or don’t want.

Personal Finance Tips 5: Retirement Planning

  • No matter how old you are, you should start planning for retirement now.
  • Planning for retirement isn’t just about putting money away. It’s also about making money.
  • No matter what, don’t use your retirement fund.
  • Put money into a 401k. It shouldn’t be the only way to save for retirement, but it should be the first.
  • Put money in a Roth IRA. This lets you get the money that isn’t taxed when you retire.
  • Think about the different kinds of insurance. They are a good way for anyone to manage their money.
  • Don’t just stick with life insurance. Think about disability insurance as well.
  • Keep all your important papers in one place where they are safe and easy to find. Have a backup plan in case something goes wrong.
  • If you get a raise and start making more money, you should have more money in your savings.
  • If your needs haven’t changed, don’t spend more when you get a raise.
  • When you plan for retirement, keep your needs and wants in check.
  • Planning for retirement is always a good idea but in a subtle way.
  • When you turn forty, planning for retirement becomes a top priority. No longer can it be of little importance.

Personal Finance Tips 6: Credit Management

  • Always look at your credit history, know your score, and pay close attention to your annual report.
  • Don’t use more than 30% of your creditworthiness or credit that is available to you.
  • If you have bad credit, use a secured credit card.
  • Don’t put your savings and checking accounts in the same bank.
  • If you don’t have a bank nearby, you might want to look into credit unions.
  • You shouldn’t take money out of your savings unless you have to.
  • Report any mistakes on your credit report and have your score fixed.
  • Consider hiring a credit repair expert to help you get the wrong information taken off your credit report.
  • In time, you’ll be able to improve your credit score.

Personal Finance Tips 7: Plan for investing

  • Save money each month, and then every so often, put it to work.
  • When you have a lot of money, you don’t have to start investing. Small amounts of money saved can also be invested.
  • When you invest money, don’t get caught up in too many fees.
  • Choose where you want to put your money. Have a varied portfolio, but don’t do the same thing over and over. Learn about every field you want to get into.
  • Try to choose investments with returns that grow over time.
  • Know how taxes affect your investments and the money you make from them.
  • Every year, at the very least, you should look over your investment plan.
  • If you need to, hire a financial advisor.

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Is your bank safe? Don’t forget that peace of mind is important.

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safe is your bank

Even though banks are generally thought to be safe because of this bank safe many have frozen their customers’ money because of bad finances. People think that private sector banks and cooperative banks are more likely to fail, but IDBI was also in trouble before LIC bought it out.

Obviously, the interest rate on your fixed deposit at the bank is not the only thing to consider when making an investment.

Every once in a while, we hear that something went wrong and put the money that people put in banks at risk. The accusing finger is always pointed at the regulator and the government.

Sure, the “system” has a role to play, but so does every stakeholder, and that includes the person who makes a deposit.

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In this case, it is the depositor’s responsibility to know what he or she is getting into, what the risks are, and who is responsible for the loss if something goes wrong.

This is important because we tend to be swayed when we see a big sign outside a branch office that says “Bank” in big letters.

As an example, the scam at Punjab and Maharashtra Cooperative Bank (PMC) is said to have affected even people at the Reserve Bank of India.

The Reserve Bank Officers’ Cooperative Credit Society Ltd., with 3,500 members, has a 105 crore fixed deposit with PMC. Reserve Bank Staff and Officers Cooperative Credit Society Ltd., with 8,300 members, had 86.50 crores in fixed deposits.

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Also Read: Why you shouldn’t invest in ELSS at year’s end.

Does a safety increase suffice?

The “system” now protects depositors.

Under the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Act, the insurance coverage is now Rs 5 lakh, increased from Rs 1 lakh earlier.

Earlier, the payment of compensation to depositors would have to wait until the liquidation of the bank, which can take years at a Now, it is upon the incident of default.

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The Reserve Bank of India’s December 29, 2022, Financial Stability Report stated that “the number of registered insured banks as on September 30, 2022, stood at 2,034 including 141 commercial banks and 1,893 cooperative banks.”

As of end-September 2022, 267.1 crore fully protected savings accounts (98.0%) were insured for up to 5 lacks. 46.2 percent of assessable deposits were insured.

It covers 98% of bank depositors by account number. This covers 46.2% of deposits in money value. More than half of the deposits are uninsured since they exceed the 5 lakh barrier.

This collection is responsible for 2 percent of accounts but almost half of their value. Equitable compensation is a macro requirement. After a banking accident, the system is expected to compensate beyond 5 lacks.

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But if that happened (it hasn’t so far, but just for the sake of argument), the money would come from the government’s pool of money.

This pot of money belongs to taxpayers in the end. People who keep their money in banks that are safer and have lower interest rates are also taxpayers. In other words, it includes people who did not like the higher interest rate offered by the bank that went out of business.

Trying to find the safest bank

Your bank deposits are safe in more ways than just insurance coverage. When you choose one of the simplest and most basic ways to invest, you should feel at ease. Banks owned by the government are safe.

Even though it’s not a written guarantee, the Government is expected to do this. If something goes wrong, the government steps in and figures out a way to fix it. When IDBI Bank went out of business because of a lot of bad loans, LIC had to take the hit.

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People argued about the move because some people think that LIC’s money belongs to policyholders. But the money that people had on deposit was safe.

The next type of bank is the leading private sector banks. When Yes Bank had a lot of non-performing loans (NPAs), the top banks in our country were asked to take a stake and help get the bank through the crisis.

Too Big to Fail is an expression that means something is too big to fail.

The idea of “Too Big to Fail” (TBTF) says that when a big bank is in trouble and could put the whole financial system at risk, the whole system steps in to help.

There are many cooperative banks that fail because their founders “used” them to run up huge non-performing loans, but these are not TBTFs.

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According to the Financial Stability Report, which the RBI released on December 29, 2022, the gross NPAs of scheduled commercial banks (the leading banks) is 5% and the net NPAs (after accounting for provisions) are only 1.3%.

Gross Non-Performing Assets (GNPAs) for Urban Cooperative Banks (UCBs) are 12.7%, and Gross Non-Performing Assets (GNPAs) for non-scheduled UCBs are 15.8%. Even worse would be NPAs of rural UCBs that are not on a schedule.

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Why you shouldn’t invest in ELSS at year’s end.

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invest in ELSS

Why you shouldn’t rush to invest in ELSS at the end of the year but should buy it all year long Budget 2023 must raise section 80C tax deduction limits. Tax savings would assist retail investors. When Section 80C tax deduction limitations were raised last time to Rs 1.5 lakh, inflows into ELSS funds or tax-savings funds increased.

March saw 28% of equity-linked savings scheme (ELSS) investments between 2005 and 2014. Investments in the latter three months of the fiscal year have increased since FY2014.

Everyone procrastinates, including mutual fund (MF) professionals. As the fiscal year ends in March, investors rush to buy tax-saving ETFs. Intriguingly, 50% of ELSS investments occur in the fourth quarter. ELSS, or tax-saving MF schemes, are useful to review in the last quarter.

Going the ELSS way

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India has historically saved. The trend of savings over the decades and the way Indian investors regard investments, especially tax-exempt ones, support this.

ELSS assets under management (AUM) are over Rs 1.50 lakh crore, accounting for 4% of the mutual fund industry’s AUM and growing. On October 31, 2022, 40 ELSS had 1.44 crore.

Also Read: How to pick the best Exchange-traded funds

Invest in ELSS trend in India

ELSS funds offered Rs 10,000 tax deductions until FY2005. In FY15, it was raised to Rs 1.5 lakh under section 80C of the Finance Act, 2005.

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When the limit under 80C has raised to Rs 1.5 lakh in FY2015, there was a sudden jump in the gross sales of ELSS, as shown in the table:

How investments in ELSS went up after the limits of Section 80C was raised to Rs 1.5 lakh. From: AMFI

The flows went from an average of Rs 3,000 crore per year (from FY10 to FY14) to Rs 25,000 crore per year (the 5-year average during FY18-22). If the 80C limits go up even more, we might see more money going into ELSS.

After Section 80C was changed, there were more sales of ELSS. From: AMFI

Non-market-linked investment options do not have volatility. So, it doesn’t make much of a difference if you spend time on them.

Still, most investors buy tax-saving funds in the last three months of the financial year. From: AMFI

But since ELSS is a market-linked equity-based savings instrument, it is different from the National Savings Certificate (NSC), the Public Provident Fund (PPF), the old pension scheme, and any other savings instrument with a fixed return on debt.

So, investing in ELSS in a planned way over the course of the financial year, instead of rushing to invest in March or the January-March quarter, can help investors reduce volatility because rupee cost averaging and investing in funds across different market cycles can help smooth out price changes.

SIP can be done every day, every week, every month, every three months, or every six months. Investing money on a regular basis is a great idea. For salaried investors, it will also help to balance out their monthly income instead of investing a lump sum in ELSS funds.

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ELSS decoded

ELSS is a great way to save money on taxes, and it also has a minimum lock-in period of 3 years. invest in ELSS Other ways to save money on taxes have lock-in periods of 5 years or more.

Also, only part of the gains from ELSS are taxed (long-term capital gains on equity or equity mutual funds up to Rs 1 lakh is tax-free). On the other hand, gains from other 80C investments, such as tax savings FD and NSC, are fully taxed, while gains from NPS are partially taxed.

To sum up, investors should change how they invest or look at ELSS as a way to invest. Investing in an ELSS in a planned way over a long period of time, like 10 years or more, is a good idea and shouldn’t be done only during tax season, whether that’s the January-March quarter or the month of March.

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Index Funds vs. ETFs: Key Differences to Know

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ETF vs. Mutual Fund

Index Funds vs. ETFs are popular passive investment vehicles often managed by professional fund managers.

It is tough for investors to find the time to manage their investments in the modern environment. They typically invest in passive investment streams, in which their money is invested and traded on their behalf by professional fund managers.

You may now be wondering what an Index Fund and an ETF are. Which is the superior choice between index funds and ETFs?

Continue reading to learn the answers to these concerns regarding the distinction between index funds and ETFs.

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Also Read: How to pick the best Exchange-traded funds

Index Funds

Index Funds are similar to mutual funds in that they invest in securities that are further diversified across stocks, bonds, and commodities. However, these index funds attempt to trade primarily in accordance with popular indices like the NIFTY 50 and SENSEX 100.

As a result, investors are able to invest in hazardous shares with reduced risk, as the index fund ensures that the investment does not deviate from the benchmark regardless of market conditions.

Index Funds give strong returns and long-term wealth development benefits, and are therefore increasing in favor of an investor-friendly passive investing alternative.

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Characteristics of Index Funds

  • An Index Fund is an open-ended mutual fund scheme in which the investor may invest and withdraw funds at will.
  • Index Funds offer both growth and income alternatives, allowing investors to choose their investing risk tolerance.
  • It is handled by fund managers who trade on behalf of the investor and ensure that the value of the investment suffers minimal or no loss while maximizing profit.

Index Funds carry higher management expense fees to compensate fund managers and AMC fees, which can be expensive for investors.

ETFs

ETFs, or Exchange Traded Funds, are funds that trade intraday on the stock market and record profits at the conclusion of the trading day. ETFs are characterized by a high degree of transparency, allowing investors to see precisely how their investments are allocated

ETFs, like Index Funds, are affected by the share market, and these transactions occur in real-time. ETFs include industry ETFs, bond ETFs, currency ETFs, commodity ETFs, and inverse ETFs, among others.

What ETFs are and how they work

  • ETFs have lower expense ratios, but it costs more to buy and sell them.
  • ETFs are traded just like shares on the stock market, so investors need a DEMAT account to buy and sell them.
  • ETFs also give investors dividend income, which they can then use to buy more stocks on the stock market.
  • ETFs depend completely on how liquid the stock market is, and investors can lose money if the market goes in a bad direction.
  • Investors are told every day what is going on with their investments.
  • In the same way that investors can buy and sell index funds whenever they want, they can do the same with ETFs.
  • Unlike index funds, which offer growth options, ETFs don’t give investors the chance to make their money grow.

Difference Between Index Funds vs. ETFs

Here are some of the most important ways in which ETFs and index funds are different.

ETF
Index Fund
Requirement of DEMAT Account
Trading in ETFs requires a DEMAT account.There is no requirement for a DEMAT account to trade in index funds.
SIP Investment
Investors cannot invest in ETFs through SIPs.
Investors can invest in Index Funds through the SIPs lock-in period or until the child turns 18.
Expense Ratio

These have lower expense ratios than Index Funds.These have higher expense ratios than ETFs.
Fund ManagementIn comparison to Index Funds, ETFs provide flexible trading options.Index Funds are managed mainly by fund managers.
Valuation of FundsThe valuation of the funds is done continuously in an ETF.The valuation of Index Funds is done at the end of the day.

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How to pick the best Exchange-traded funds

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ETS

As it gets harder for large-cap funds to beat benchmark indices, exchange-traded funds have become very popular in India. There are three main things that can help you choose.

Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) have become a popular way for many investors to put their money to work. They have come a long way since they began in India 20 years ago. In the last few years, the number of ETFs has grown quickly.

After the Covid hit, the Indian stock market has been going up steadily. So, during the same time period, record amounts of money came into the ETFs.

According to the most recent information on the website of the Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI), the assets under management (AUM) of ETFs rose by about 18% between December 2021 and September 2022, reaching Rs 4.75 trillion. But from March 2020 to September 2022, the AUM jumped by 207.43%.

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Since the first ETF was listed on the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) in 2002, there are now 152 ETFs listed on the NSE, giving investors a huge range of options.

Since there are so many ETFs on the market, how do you choose which one to buy?

What are you like?

First, choose what kind of ETF you want. Are you interested in big company stocks? Bonds? Or do you want to use gold to fight inflation?

Once you know what you want, you can find the ETFs that fit your needs.

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Most ETFs focus on large-cap stocks because they are the most liquid and easiest to track. And this is another area where ETFs can give their actively managed, large-cap peers a run for their money.

Even after you figure out which type of ETF you like best, you’ll probably still have a few to choose from. Let’s look at some of the most important things that can help you narrow down the list and pick the best choice.

Also Read: Edelweiss Financial Services NCD rates are competitive.

Tracking mistake

Most ETFs track indices like the Nifty 50 Index or BHARAT Bond ETF. Tracking error shows how closely returns match benchmarks. When the tracking error is low, the ETF matches the index. A lower tracking error means the ETF has produced returns closer to the benchmark. Choose an ETF with a low tracking error but also consider its tracking consistency.

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Since liquid stocks are easier for ETF fund managers to enter and exit, ETFs that track large-cap indices have the lowest tracking error.

The ETF’s latest datasheet can also quantify tracking inaccuracy. These reports usually show ETF and index performance on the same chart. These lines should stay close throughout the fund’s existence. If the ETF significantly outperforms or underperforms the index, the manager may not match the index portfolio.

Cost

Low-cost products can maximize returns. An ETF’s expense ratio—the amount of your investment that covers the manager’s charges—is one of its most noticeable costs.

Lower expense ratios are preferable. SEBI limits ETF expense ratios below 1%.

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ETFs have lower expense ratios since they are passively managed. ETF expenses vary by fund. Choose a lower-expense ETF when comparing similar ones.

Liquidity

ETFs should be easy to buy and sell. Thus, while evaluating ETFs, consider ones with significant trading volumes to ensure liquidity.

Liquidity also lowers bid-ask spreads. ETF prices should also be close to their net asset values (NAV). ETFs are pricey if the price exceeds the NAV.

Investors should what?

ETFs can benefit all investors. Beginners who struggle with stock investing should consider equity ETFs. Gold and silver ETFs are good for hedging, while international ETFs let you diversify and access foreign markets.

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WHAT IS ESG (ENVIRONMENTAL | SOCIAL | GOVERNANCEWHAT)?

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What is ESG?

What is ESG? Environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) investments look at how these three things affect the long-term financial performance of a company. Experts who support investments based on ESG principles think that companies whose managers follow these principles could have higher earnings growth in the future and lower financial risks at the same time.

ESG Research: The Building Blocks

ESG Research is done by research and consulting firms that gather information about how companies do on the different ESG factors, analyze it, and then give their rating or suggestions. The parts that makeup ESG research can be put into three main groups: –

ENVIRONMENTAL

  • Climate Change: Carbon emissions, carbon footprint, how vulnerable people are to regulations about climate change, etc.
  • Raw materials (and where they come from), water management, land use, etc. are all examples of natural resources.
  • Pollution: Toxic emissions, how trash is handled, how packages are made, etc.
  • Opportunities: Companies have chances to focus on renewable energy (like solar, wind, etc.) and green buildings, among other things.

Also Read: Edelweiss Financial Services NCD rates are competitive.

SOCIAL

  • Human Resources: Worker issues and management, workplace health and safety, safety standards, supplier labor standards, etc.
  • Product: Quality of product, the safety of the product, security of financial products, safety and privacy of data, a product that is good for the environment, etc.
  • Stakeholders: Relationship with suppliers and customers.
  • Opportunities: Companies have chances to improve communication (telecommunication, data, software, etc.), access to funding, healthcare, and other things.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

  • Who owns something and who runs it
  • Protection of minority shareholders’ interests
  • How the board of directors is made up
  • Standards and procedures for accounting
  • Financial and non-financial disclosures
  • Corporate behavior: business ethics, tax transparency, practices that hurt competition, ways to stop corruption, etc.

Why are investors becoming more interested in ESG themes?

  1. Global sustainability problems like environmental risk factors, changing demographics (like the fact that the world’s population is getting older), data privacy and security issues, and changing regulations, among other things, cause companies to face new challenges.
  2. ESG investments are becoming more popular because investors are getting younger and more women are becoming investors. MSCI says that over the next 20 to 30 years, millennial investors can put an extra $15 to $20 trillion into ESG investments in the US.
  3. Since it was started in 2006, the United Nations Principles for Responsible Investing (PRI), which requires investors to be committed to ESG principles, has gotten support from more than 2,500 institutional investors.

Also Read: Bank of India Mutual Fund, ex-CEO, and others settle the Sebi valuation case.

How has a strong ESG proposition helped companies make money and get ready for the future?

Companies that have strong ESG propositions built into their business model, operations, and management philosophy have been able to create value and be better prepared for the future:

  • Better growth and revenue by breaking into new markets and growing market share in existing ones. For products or businesses that need approval from regulators or the government, companies with a good track record in ESG and established processes that are linked to ESG factors are more likely to get approval faster. This lets them get their products on the market faster and gives them an edge over their competitors.
  • Build stronger relationships with customers and brands. As people become more aware of how they affect the environment and other people, businesses and products that do well in these areas can gain more customer loyalty and brand value.
  • Excellent operating margins and low costs. When companies use ESG principles in their factories and operations, they can save a lot of money on things like raw materials, energy, water, waste management, and other things.
  • More people could use the resources. Companies with strong ESG principles tend to have better relationships with both the central and state governments as well as with the community. With the help of the government and the people, they will also be able to solve problems more quickly. There are many examples of projects that never got off the ground because people in the area were against them.
  • Less government interference. Companies with strong ESG records and well-established processes are likely to face less scrutiny from the government and less regulation. Companies with weak ESG principles are more likely to get in trouble with the law, which can slow down production until the problem is fixed.
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Edelweiss Financial Services NCD rates are competitive.

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Edelweiss Financial Services

Edelweiss Financial Services’ non-convertible debentures have terms of 2 to 10 years and interest rates between 9 and 10.45%. NCDs are good for people who want a steady and fixed income, but most of them, like this one from Edelweiss, come with some credit risk.

With a Rs 400-crore public issue, Edelweiss Financial Services Ltd. has started the non-convertible debenture (NCD) calendar for 2023.

The company puts out a lot of debt, and it currently owes about Rs 15,500 crore in debt securities (as on March 2022).

There will be 10 different types of debentures for investors to choose from, with terms ranging from 24 to 120 months. The interest rate on the coupon ranges from 9% to 10.45% per year. Interest can be paid monthly, annually, or all at once.

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In their most recent issue, which came out in October 2022, the highest coupon rate was 10% per year.

You can invest at least Rs 10,000 in the latest NCD, which has a face value of Rs 1,000. You can only buy and hold investments that are dematerialized. Because of this, you need a demat account.

Also Read: Bank of India Mutual Fund, ex-CEO, and others settle the Sebi valuation case.

What’s nice?

Edelweiss Financial Services is a diversified business group in India that offers financial services in a number of cities and has enough money to do so. Most of its income comes from its wholesale lending business, but the group also has businesses in wealth management, asset management, capital markets, insurance, and asset reconstruction that are not related to lending.

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In the banking and finance industry, the company is well-known and respected.

It did have trouble making money and keeping its assets in good shape in 2020 and 2021. But by 2022, this seems to have gotten better and stayed the same. As of September 2022, the net amount of non-performing assets for the group as a whole was 1.95 percent. Compared to 1.8 percent in March 2022 and 5.84 percent in March 2021, this is a big change.

Cash and bank balances make up about 10% of the company’s total financial obligations, which is a good amount.

This makes it possible and gives enough money to cover interest on outstanding liabilities.

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What doesn’t work

The rating agency CRISIL has kept the credit rating at AA- with a negative outlook because it has found stress in the asset quality of the wholesale lending book and negative pressures on the overall profit margins.

Some affiliate businesses, like insurance, still lose money and take a long time to start making money.

In its rating rationale note, CRISIL also mentions high credit costs as a red flag. Since interest rates are still going up and Edelweiss NCDs offer long-term interest rates of 10% or more, this upward pressure on interest costs isn’t likely to go away anytime soon.

Also, the lending and non-lending parts of financial services are both very competitive. Unless costs are controlled, margins could remain under pressure.

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Also Read: Does it matter how big a mutual fund scheme is?

What do you need to do?

According to Aditya Shah, CFA, and a Mumbai-based SEBI-registered investment advisor, “Undoubtedly, the yield is better than other comparable fixed deposits. But it’s important to know that the higher yield could come with a higher risk. In this case, it is the credit risk or the risk of non-fulfillment of financial obligations in the future. Also, the 10-year bond has the highest coupon, at 10.45 percent, but it is hard to sell. We prefer to stick to highest rated or AAA bonds for clients to ensure minimum risk.”

After taxes, the long-term return for those in the highest tax bracket goes up to about 6.8%, while those in lower tax brackets can get as much as 9.4% per year.

Even after taxes, the annual return on the two-year debenture, which is around 8.1%, is still pretty good. You can make a strategic decision about 5–10% of your fixed-income allocation, as long as you understand the risks. If not, it’s best to skip it.

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